For centuries, stone has been used by nearly all civilizations. Each corner of the world and each layer of earth yields a multitude of stone varieties, and a uniqueness within each stone, giving you a vast palette of possible applications wherewith to create your masterpiece.
CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL STONE
Natural Stones are quarried out of mountains or underground from all over the world and then cut into blocks. The various sized stone blocks are cut into various sizes and shapes and then the face is finished into a polished, honed, leathered, hammered, etc. based on the customer’s specifications. One beautiful characteristic of natural stone is that there are no two pieces of natural stone alike. Some stones may have extreme variation in color and veining from tile to tile or slab to slab. This characteristic is common in many types of stone, and is part of the inherent beauty of using a natural product in your home or project
Limestone is defined as a rock of sedimentary origin composed principally of calcium carbonate or the double carbonate of calcium and magnesium, or a combination of these two minerals. Recrystallized limestone, compact microcrystalline limestone, and travertine that are capable of taking a polish are promoted, marketed and sold as either limestone or marble, particularly in the United States. Dimension limestone is divided into three sub-classifications that describe their densities in approximate ranges, as follows:
- LOW DENSITY – Limestone having a density ranging from 110 through 135/lb/ft3 (1760 through 2160 kg/m3)..
- MEDIUM DENSITY – Limestone having a density greater that 135 and not greater than 160 lb/ft3 (2160 through 2560 kg/m3).
- HIGH DENSITY – Limestone having a density greater than 160 lb/ft3 (2560 kg/m3).
Limestone contains a number of distinguishable natural characteristics, including calcite streaks or spots, fossils or shell formations, pit holes, reedy formations, open texture streaks, honeycomb formations, iron spots , travertine-like formations and grain formation changes. One or a combination of these characteristics will affect the texture.
The shale from which slate originate were deposited previously on clay beds. Subsequent earth movements tilted these beds of shale, at first horizontal, and the intense metamorphism that converted these into slates folded and contracted them. Slate, then , belongs to the metamorphic group of rocks and can be defined as a fine grain rock derived from clays and shale and possessing a cleavage that permits it to be split into thin sheets
Quartzite, common and widely distributed rock composed mainly or entirely of quartz. The compact, granular rock is a form of metamorphosed sandstone in which silica, or quartz, has been deposited between the grains of quartz of which the sandstone is essentially composed. Other minerals that may be present in small amounts in quartzite include feldspar, mica, rutile, tourmaline, and zircon. Quartzite has a smooth fracture and is found primarily among ancient rocks, such as those of the Cambrian or Precambrian system
It is a sedimentary rock composed mostly of sand grains, cemented silica or calcium carbonate. Most sand grains contain quartz, feldspars and mica. Iron also occurs, which gives sandstone a reddish or brownish color. Most sandstone is formed through the accumulation of river sediments on the seabed which are compressed to form the rock. Displaying a rough and cleft surface they come in tiled or puzzled installations. A topical sealer can be applied for interior applications to increase surface luster and ease of maintenance.